اصطلاحات رایج در سنگ شناسی:

اصطلاحات سنگ شناسی :

کانی سنگ:

پوسته سخت و جامد زمین از سنگ  ساخته شده است و سنگ ها از قسمت های ساده تری به نام کانی ساخته شده اند

و هر کانی از نام خاص خود برخوردار است.

کانی ها مواد جامد, طبیعی, غیر آلی, معمولاً متبلور و همگن هستند که ترکیب شیمیایی مشخصی دارند.

تا کنون حدود 3000 کانی در طبیعت شناخته شده که تنها 25 کانی در سنگ های پوسته زمین به وفور یافت می شود

که به آنها کانی های سنگ ساز می گویند.

· جلا: جلای هر کانی یا سنگ در واقع توانایی آن در منعکس ساختن, متفرق کردن  یا جذب نور است.

·        سختی: سختی مقاومتی است که کانی در برابر خراشاندن , ساییدن , خراشیده شدن از خود نشان می دهد.

(سختی سنگ یا کانی بر اساس جدول موس تعیین می شود که از 1-10 درجه بندی می شود

و هرچه عدد مربوط به سختی کانی به 10 نزدیکتر باشد نشان از سختی بیشتر کانی است)

·        بافت: به مشخصات و رابطه هندسی اجزای تشکیل دهندی سنگ از جمله اندازه , شکل , نحوه ی قرار گیری ذرات و بلورهای آن بافت اطلاق می شود.

·        مقاومت:

مقاومت سنگ ، تحت تأثیر عوامل مختلفی از قبیل هوازدگی، سرما ، گرما و آتش سوزی، دائماً تغییر می یابد.

همچنین عوامل مربوط به هوازدگی بعضاً شیمیایی می باشند. این عوامل می توانند گازهایی نظیر SO2 ،O2 و CO2باشند.

در شهرها که حضور چنین گازهایی به وفور در هوا وجود دارند.

سنگهای نمای ساختمانی بیشتر تحت تأثیر آنها مقاومت خود را از دست می دهند.

برخی عوامل هوازدگی (نظیر انجماد و ذوب آب داخل حفره های سنگ، خاصیت رنگبری و اثر گرمایی نور خورشید) به صورت فیزیکی سنگ را تحت تأثیر قرار می دهند. لازم به توضیح می باشد

که عوامل هوازدگی شیمیایی و فیزیکی تواماً عمل می کنند و غالباً سبب تغییر رنگ، شکسته شدن و جدا شدن سنگ از بنا می شوند.

اضافه می شود که سنگهای آهکی در مناطقی که بارندگی زیاد بوده و گازکربنیک موجود در فضا بیش از اندازه باشد،

برای نمای خارجی ساختمانها چندان مناسب نمی باشد (بویژه انواع تراورتن ها).

·        تخلخل یا پوکی:

تخلخل (پوکی) : نسبت حجم بخش غیرجامد (بخش مایع + بخش گاز) موجود در یک سنگ یا خاک به حجم کل آن.

n = Vv/ Vt

سنگها اجسامی کاملاً توپر نیستند و همیشه حاوی خلل و فرج به صورت حفره های کم و بیش مرتبط،

شکافها و یا حفره های مجزا هستند. تخلخل سنگها می تواند از صفر تا 90 درصد نوسان داشته باشد.

ولی بطور متوسط برای سنگهای رسوبی حدود 15% در نظرگرفته می شود،

سنگهای آذرین و دگرگونی تخلخل کمتری نسبت به سنگهای رسوبی دارند.

پاره ای از سنگهای آذرین مثل توفهای جوش خورده یا تراکیت ها از این قاعده مستثنی هستند.

سنگهای آذرین فرسایش یافته نیز ممکن است تخلخل زیادی داشته باشند.

وجود حفرات در سنگ اهمیت زیادی در خواص مکانیکی سنگ دارد و بطور کلی هرچه تخلخل بیشتر باشد مقاومت مکانیکی آن کمتر است.

·        آلتراسیون(دگرسانی):

به کلیه تغییرات شیمیایی و کانی شناسی که تحت تأثیر آبهای ماگمایی و یا گرمایی در سنگها ایجاد می‌شود آلتراسیون می‌گویند.

·        متامورفیسم:

دگرگونی (متامورفیسم)  هرگاه سنگهای رسوبی یا آذرین در مدت زمان طولانی تحت فشار یا گرمای زیاد قرار گیرند

ونوع کانیها وبافت سنگ عوض شود

اصطلاحات

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